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Hemostatic agents pdf file

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1 Feb 2012 Hemostatic Agents. Technology Opportunity Assessment. Prepared for the Merck for Mothers Program. February 2012. MAILING ADDRESS. PO Box Hemostatic agents are medical substances that induce blood clotting and stop harmful blood loss. . adolescent/documents/PPH_TechUpdate2.pdf.
 Topical hemostatic agents are used in a wide variety of surgical settings, and the evolution of this class of surgical tools is an interesting topic. We reviewed and outlined the historical .. 22. Pfizer GELFOAM package insert. Available from:[last cited on 2009].
 Bleeding intraoperatively and postoperatively in oral surgery poses a great threat to the patient and can lead to serious untoward consequences if uncontrolled. The dentist should be familiar with the range of hemostatic agents available and their application during different types of bleeding episodes. Bleeding
 The WFH strongly recommends the use of viral- inactivated plasma-derived or recombinant concentrates in preference to cryoprecipitate or fresh frozen plasma for the treatment of hemo- philia and other inherited bleeding disorders. (Level 5) [1,2]. 2. The comprehensive WFH Guide for the Assess- ment of Clotting Factor
 Topical hemostatic agents play an important role in both common and specialized dermatologic pro- cedures. These agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action and include physical or mechanical agents, caustic agents, biologic physical agents, and physiologic agents. Some agents in- duce protein
 Hemostatic Agents: A Guide to Safe Practice for. Perioperative Nurses. MARGARET A. CAMP, MSN, BSN, RN. 3.0 Continuing Education Contact Hours indicates that continuing education (CE) contact hours are available for this activity. Earn the CE contact hours by reading this article, reviewing the
 Topical Hemostatic. Agents. What the Oral and Maxillofacial. Surgeon Needs to Know. Patrick J. Vezeau, DDS, MS. INTRODUCTION. Hemostasis is a key concept in the Different hemostatic agents can be used, depending on the type of surgery and estimated or actual .. brochure/DAV-2127-Arista%20Brochure_app.pdf.
 22 Aug 2017 A, Chapman JR, Self-made, Cost-Reducing Hemostatic Agent for use in Spine Surgery, World. Neurosurgery (2017), doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2017.08.154. This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the
 Surface-acting hemostatic devices, when applied directly to bleeding surfaces, arrest bleeding by providing a mechanical matrix that facilitates clotting. 6,8,13,14. Due to their bulk, surface-acting hemostatic agents slow the flow of blood, protect the forming clot, and offer a framework for deposition of the cellular elements of
 1 Jul 2006 are acknowledged for reviewing this document. DOI 10.2146/ajhp060003 on hemostasis. One device, an ab- sorbable hemostatic agent, is often used as adjunctive therapy when bleeding is not controlled by ligature or the application of sert. pdf (accessed 2005 Jan,,,,


Hemophilia diagnosis pdf

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13 Sep 2011 Hemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder in which the blood does not clot properly. The mission of CDC’s Division of Blood Disorders is to reduce the morbidity and mortality from blood disorders through comprehensive public health practice.
 Practice Guidelines for the Molecular Diagnosis of Haemophilia A. Guidelines prepared by Steve Keeney, Mike Mitchell and Anne Goodeve on behalf of the UK Haemophilia Centre. Doctors’ Organisation (UKHCDO), the Haemophilia Genetics Laboratory Network and the Clinical Molecular Genetics. Society. All network
 Diagnosis of Hemophilia and Other Bleeding Disorders. A LABORATORY MANUAL. Second Edition (2010) on behalf of. The WFH Laboratory Sciences Committee. Chair (2010): Steve Kitchen, Sheffield, U.K.. Deputy Chair: Sukesh Nair, Vellore, India. This edition was reviewed by the following, who at the time of writing.
 19 Dec 2017 Full-text (PDF) | #### Summary points Haemophilia, which means love (“philia”) of blood (“haemo”), is associated with prolonged and excessive bleeding. It is a hereditary disorder of haemostasis that occurs in one in 5000 men (prevalence of 10 in 100 000 people) and is caused by a deficiency of c
 the diagnosis and general management of hemophilia, as well as the appropriate studies. Keywords: bleeding disorders, guidelines, hemophilia, ing Disorders, 1st edn, June 2007. Avail- able at CanadianHemophiliaStandardsFirstEdition. 070612_1.pdf. Accessed April 9, 2011.
 These evidence-based guidelines offer practical recommendations on the diagnosis and general management of hemo- philia, as well as the management of complications including musculo skeletal issues, inhibitors, and transfusion-transmitted infections. By compiling these guidelines, the World Federation of Hemophilia.
 Use of Factor VIII Assays. Clinical measurement of FVIII: Quantifying FVIII levels is important for the diagnosis of hemophilia A. Considerations – a) Level of sensitivity b) Assay discrepant hemophilia A. Kitchen et al. Haemophilia 2014; 20:36-42
 Being a carrier of hemophilia can have a significant impact on a person’s health, well-being and quality of life. This chapter describes the symptoms and types of bleeding that can occur in carriers. It also explains the different diagnostic tests, treatment options and resources available to women with bleeding disorders.
 15 Nov 2012 Diagnosis and treatment of factor VIII and IX inhibitors in congenital haemophilia: (4th edition). Peter W. Collins,1 Elizabeth Chalmers,2 Daniel P. Hart,3 Ri Liesner,4 Savita Rangarajan,5 Kate Talks,6 Mike Williams7 and. Charles R. Hay8. 1School of Medicine, Cardiff University, University Hospital of Wales,
 Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare bleeding disorder with an incidence of approximately 1.5 cases/million/year1 and is characterized by autoantibodies directed against circulating coagulation factor (F) VIII. These autoantibodies constitute the most common spontaneous inhibitor to any coagulation factor and may,,, , .

The Ultimate Guide To Mobile Site Speed Optimization

We all are being pushed towards a mobile first consumer marketplace and SMB’s are still lagging behind in terms of a mobile optimized website. With lightning fast internet connections and 4G standards already in place, the time has never been better for the growth of mobile audiences. According to ComScores recent Global Mobile Report, just under half (49%) of the traffic and visitors to the top 100 digital media properties are mobile only. This is a remarkable statistic that argues websites not adapted for mobile devices may risk losing half their audience. The only thing that matters the most for mobile audience is the speed (the below fig. provides the median load times for desktop and mobile devices). The steps and methods discussed in this mobile site speed optimization guide will list all the necessary fixes that are needed to optimize the speed of your site on all types of mobile devices. How to Check Your Site Performance on Mobile Devices? One of the first things you need to do in order to make your website mobile friendly is to check its performance on mobile devices. There are several tools that you can use for this task: Google Mobile Friendly Test – This tool analyzes the URL and reports if the page has a mobile friendly design. It provides documentation of how Googlebot can view the webpage correctly on mobile devices and provides step by step suggestion on how to make the page mobile friendly. Google Page Speed Insights – This tool analyzes your web page and provides suggestions for making it faster. This tool provides 3 priority indicators namely red (needs fixing), yellow (consider fixing) and green (no issues detected) as provided in the below screenshot. GTMetrix – This tool provides a performance report by obtaining data from Google Page Speed Insights and Yahoo Slow both. It also provides a Waterfall Chart which can be used to discover simple issues such as 404’s or more complex issues such as external resources blocking page rendering. Once you have identified the issues and have made the initial fixes, now it is time to further speed up the website by implementing the below suggestions. How to Speed Up Your Website on Mobile Devices – 8 Ways to Reduce Load Time and Increase Performance The below tips have been tried and tested in order toincrease the speed of your website on mobile devices. Let’s understand each one of these, one by one. 1- Have a Properly Configured CDN Speed and accessibility are among the foremost concerns in optimizing for search. Leveraging global content caching through a content delivery network (CDN) is a great way to boost up the SEO efforts. Basically, a CDN is a collection of servers spread across different locations in the world, which cache website content dynamically. It is an additional service that can be used above and beyond existing cloud hosting services. It is compatible with a wide range of services including WordPress sites. CDN caching helps to deliver cached content via a server closest to a client. These, in turn, minimize latency and therefore load time through the advantage of shorter distances (Please refer to the below fig. to have an idea as to how having a CDN drastically reduces the loading time). A capable CDN also comes with infrastructure optimizations, such as DDoS attack protection and a web app firewall, among others. How to Configure CDN? Sign up with your preferred CDN provider and add your website. Change the DNS settings in order to route traffic through the CDNs network. Update the A record and create or update the CNAME record. (A screenshot from Incapsula has been provided below. You may choose any of your preferred CDN provider and make the required changes in the DNS settings). That’s it! Once the record updation is done, the CDN will start to route traffic to your website. Having a CDN in place will help to improve the site loading time and work towards improving the user experience. 2- Make Use of Accelerated Mobile Pages In October, Google introduced Accelerated Mobile Pages for a faster and open mobile web. Accelerated Mobile Pages are specially formatted web pages that enable search engines to display the content extremely fast, while ensuring that publishers control the way their content looks and feels. It is estimated that mobile websites can load much faster with the use of Open Source AMP HTML codes, and minimize their bounce rates by effectively curbing search engine load times. How to Implement AMP on Your Site? For implementing AMP on your site, please follow the below steps: A- Create a separate version of your main page by using AMP HTML (also known as the AMP version of your main page). Basic code for designing your first AMP HTML page is provided below: The title of your AMP page will go here body{-webkit-animation:-amp-start 8s steps(1,end) 0s 1 normal both;-moz-animation:-amp-start 8s steps(1,end) 0s 1 normal both;-ms-animation:-amp-start 8s steps(1,end) 0s 1 normal both;animation:-amp-start 8s steps(1,end) 0s 1 normal both}@-webkit-keyframes -amp-start{from{visibility:hidden}to{visibility:visible}}@-moz-keyframes -amp-start{from{visibility:hidden}to{visibility:visible}}@-ms-keyframes -amp-start{from{visibility:hidden}to{visibility:visible}}@-o-keyframes -amp-start{from{visibility:hidden}to{visibility:visible}}@keyframes -amp-start{from{visibility:hidden}to{visibility:visible}}body{-webkit-animation:none;-moz-animation:none;-ms-animation:none;animation:none} Welcome to AMP B- In order to insert images, use the following code: C- Modify the presentation and layout of the page by using common CSS properties. An example styling code is provided below: /* any custom style goes here */ body { background-color: white; } amp-img { background-color: gray; border: 1px solid black; } D- Preview, validate and publish the AMP page. E- Add the amphtmltag in the non-AMP version of the page in order to help search engine bots to identify the AMP version of your webpage: Live Example of AMP Page Here is a live example of an AMP page in actionandhere is the normal page. You can simply view the source codes for each page and notice the difference in speeds and coding. AMP Learning Resources For finding codes for learning AMP HTML, please refer to the below resources for more details: 3- Improve the Site Structure, Content and Enhance the User Experience Site architecture is an oft-neglected area when it comes to site designing, but it shouldnt be. Googles algorithm uses information from searchers so a good user experience means higher rankings. If your site structure is not proper then the page will take more time to load and the user will leave the site. This provides a bad user experience. How to Improve Site Structure? One of the most crucial aspects of a good search experience is having a good site structure because it helps to optimize the site for better crawling. Here are 8 steps that you must follow in order to enhance your site structure: Plan your site hierarchy and keep it logical. Also, balance the number of categories and subcategories. An example of a refined site structure is provided below: Use searchable keywords while naming your categories and subcategories. Picking the right names will go a long way in optimizing your site. Have a user friendly URL structure and ensure that the user takes just three or fewer clicks to reach every page. Add sitelinks as many as possible. Apart from increasing the navigability of the site, sitelinks help to increase brand reputation, increase CTR and shorten the conversion funnel. Add as many internal links as possible but make sure they are all relevant. Follow Wikipedia if you are looking for a great example on how to create solid internal links. An enhanced and SEO friendly internal linking structure will allow the link juice to pass equally across all the inner pages and allow every page to rank well on Google thereby increasing traffic and conversions. Avoid the problem of redundant categories and tags. The Yoast Tag Optimization tool is a great way to fix the problem of redundant tags on your WordPress site. Link to your most important pages more often and above the fold. It is very important that you pass on the maximum link juice to your main revenue generating pages in order to increase profits. Follow the 2 click rule which says that it should take only 2 clicks to reach to your revenue generating page from your home page. How to Improve Site Content? The ranking algorithm of Google lays a great emphasis on content quality. The panda update specifically aims to reduce rankings of sites that have low or less user friendly content on their website. The way you present the content on your site has a lot to do with site speed. Here are 5 ways you can increase site speed by improving the quality and presentation of site content: Have a blog. Search engines love unique and fresh content and having a blog just serves that purpose. I recommend having your blog on WordPress as it provides some really useful plugins that aims to reduce the overall loading time. Creating a blog in WordPress is super easy. For a step by step instructions, you candownload the free beginners guide on how to start a blog. Some plugins that you can use to optimize images and cache are:EWWW Image Optimizer,Google Libraries,WP OptimizeandWP SuperCache. Use CSS Sprites for optimizing images as it helps to combine your images into 1 large image that loads at once. Make use of responsive themes because responsive themes take the speed into account and load faster. Install Google Page Speed and MemeCached on your server. This will improve web page latency and bandwidth usage by changing the resources on that web page to implement web performance best practices. Allow the users to leave their reviews on your site. Genuine positive reviews and comments are a great factor in increasing the trustworthiness of the site. Getreviwed.orgis a great platform to join hands with hundreds of potential bloggers who are looking to share their honest insights about your products and services. Disquss and Facebook Comments plugins load fast and helps the users to add genuine reviews and comments that optimizes the overall content quality of your site because the comments are indexable. Hence, without compromising on the speed, you can add some valuable content on your site. Use browser caching and implement the HTML5 web storage API. 4- Make Use of Responsive Design As per the mobile SEO guide from Google,responsive design is Google’s recommended design pattern.Google has also stated that it ranks sites optimized for mobile higher in mobile searches. Moreover, having a responsive design offers the following main benefits: Links are directed to a single domain, leading to better search engine rankings. Controls high bounce rates, which are often otherwise used by Google to lower rankings. Enhancements in terms of user experience, which is a plus especially with real audiences and not just bots. Ways to Speed up Your Responsive Site In order to speed up your responsive site, use the following strategies: Use conditional loading which is used to stop all kinds of content from loading, including social widgets, images, maps, etc and loads only that content that matches a specific condition. Use frameworks like Bootstrap and Foundation that provide rapid mobile functionality and speed. Use adaptive images that resize itself automatically as per the available screen size. This reduces the necessity to load the full image file. Instead, reduced and embedded HTML images can be loaded without any alteration in the markup. Reduce m-dot redirection and prefer a single URL for your web pages. Use plugins like FitText which makes the font size flexible so that it fits in the width provided by the parent element. 5- Use Sitemaps and GWT for Better Crawlability Your site rankings often depend upon tiny bots working continuously and crawling through your site, ranking and analyzing your content based on search engine optimization factors. The following steps can help to speed up your website by allowing crawlers to effectively crawl your site and minimize downtime: Create sitemaps and be sure to avoid duplicate content. Sitemaps are really useful as they provide Google with metadata about specific types of content on your pages, including video, image, and mobile content. For example, a sitemap video entry can specify the video running time, category, and age appropriateness rating whereas a sitemap image entry can include the image subject matter, type, and license. Optimize Google crawl rate through the Google WebMasters tools. For more help, please refer to:Google guide on how to change the crawl rate. Keep updating content as Google bots have a fascination for fresh new content. Use reliable servers and always provide HTTPS secured sites wherever required. 6- Use Ajax and Touch Events in Place of Click Events Mobile users hate to click on a resource and then wait for another resource to load. Instead, an easier solution is to make use of TouchEvents that supports simultaneous touches at different locations of the touch surface. Such touch events when applied on the buttons can drastically reduce the load time and increase the user experience. The figure below provides a series of touch events that the users might generate while interacting with the mobile device. Also,it is recommended to use AJAX as it allows data to be fetched from a web server without having to refresh the page where the code is running. 7- Optimize Client Side Processing In the case of mobile devices, client side processing is greatly reduced due to slower CPU’s and less memory. In order to increase the efficiency of page processing, it is recommended to defer the loading of below the fold content like images and scripts. Downloading and parsing these scripts can safely be deferred until after the onload event. Some scripts needs to be called only after the user initiates any action like drag and drop so, such scripts should not be loaded unless the user reaches the screen so that he is ready to take any action. With these guidelines and change in website infrastructure, you can speed up your website and achieve higher rankings. Have you implemented any other technique that has helped you to greatly reduce the loading time of your website? Please let me know in your comments below. Hand-Picked Related Articles: * Lead image adapted from Éole. Some rights reserved.


A Privacy Preservation Model for Health-Related Social Networking Sites


Health-related social networking sites (SNS) are websites that enable the connection of users and facilitate the exchange of health knowledge and information. Physicians can connect with their peers and collaborate on patient cases and other medical topics to improve health care delivery and patient outcomes at sites like Doximity. Patients with life-changing illnesses can find other patients like them, discuss and track medical conditions, and give and receive support at PatientsLikeMe. Before the advent of SNS, medical providers and pharmaceutical companies spread the word to encourage participation in wellness and disease management programs. Today, websites such as Inspire and DailyStrength provide users with the opportunity to share information and stories about healthy living, thereby supporting and inspiring others. The proliferation of these sites is building a new health-information technology business prophesied on the belief that the wisdom of crowds really is smarter than any one person, no matter how well researched the individual person.

However, users reveal vast amounts of personal health information on a health-related SNS. They may also join other social networks or websites and enter personal information and other specific information covering social, professional, and health domains into other websites. There are many possible ways that users’ privacy can be compromised: data misuses, disclosures to intruders, accidental data releases, disclosures to third parties and apps, and user profiling across multiple social networks. A recent incident in which a major media monitoring firm improperly scraped personal data from PatientsLikeMe demonstrates significant privacy risks for online health information [1]. In the United States, health care providers disclose patient information without patient authorization in violation of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act, and/or state privacy laws and can be subject to fines and other penalties. In the age of Facebook and Twitter, however, many patients themselves volunteer to post their personally identifiable information (PII) and sensitive health information on multiple social networks.

While privacy concerns in social networks are well recognized by prior research [2-7], the literature on innovative privacy-preserving models and technical standards is quite limited. Based on expert opinions on the major privacy concerns, the effectiveness of possible solutions, and the requirements for developing privacy-preserving social network apps, Weiss [7] proposed a privacy threat model for data portability in social network apps. However, this work concentrated on privacy in the sense of visibility and transparence, that is, transparent and open privacy handling practices, and not so much on the privacy-preserving mechanisms that need to be developed. To address the privacy issues caused by the central SNS provider, such as data misuse and leakage risk, it has been proposed to decentralize social networking services [8-10]. However, to our best knowledge, current health-related SNS are predominantly logically centralized services and the underlying business model relies on access to the user-generated content, resulting in the impracticality of the decentralized SNS approach. There is a strong need to develop a privacy model that can protect user privacy in the complex social networking environment. This paper addresses this gap by identifying the most important threats to users and SNS providers and proposes a privacy preservation model to address the privacy challenges of health-related SNS. This paper first analyzes privacy concerns related to health-related SNS. It then develops a threat model and articulates some principal threats. Since current privacy solutions such as end-user license agreements and privacy settings are inadequate to address the threats, this paper presents a privacy preservation model that integrates both individual self-protection and privacy-by-design approaches and uses the model to develop principles and countermeasures to protect privacy.

Privacy Concerns Related to Social Networking Sites

To illustrate privacy issues with health-related SNS, we analyze the Inspire platform. Inspire may be considered an illustrative case of patient sites that offer a privacy policy and settings to address users’ privacy concerns.

Inspire is an online health and wellness support community for patients and caregivers. Inspire is provided by ClinicaHealth, Inc., and is composed of more than 190 disease-specific communities. As of December 2014, Inspire has over 400,000 registered members and 700,000 unique visitors each month.

Inspire is free for individuals and non-profit patient advocacy associations [11]. Its business model largely depends on advertising revenue and partnerships with many third-party companies [12]. Inspire helps companies and researchers find likely clinical trial participants. Clinical trial sponsors pay Inspire for this service. Inspire also offers health-focused research services to commercial companies. User-generated content has high value for the companies to conduct secondary research and issues analysis. Furthermore, Inspire makes money from selling targeted advertising.

The products and services of Inspire are essentially user profiles and user-generated content. Inspire collects and stores three types of information from users: personal profile, user-generated content, and Web behavior information. At its registration page, Inspire asks a new user to provide certain personal information, including a functioning email address, postal code, gender, date of birth, user ID, and password. A user is also given an option to provide additional personal information to create an extended online profile [13]. User-generated content is all the information a user posts on the site or communicates with other users, including disease conditions, treatments, family history, and possibly personal information generated by the user. Web behavior information is information on how a user uses different features of the site collected through cookies. Inspire may combine this information with the profile [13].

Inspire strives to create a secure environment where users connect with each other around shared conditions and share relevant information about their health and the health of their loved ones. When people’s personal information is involved, however, there are several privacy concerns. First, Inspire may reveal personal information to other users and outsiders. When a user registers at the site, the profile becomes visible to other users of the site and the profile may also be found by visitors of the site using Inspire’s search functions. Although users can use the privacy settings to control access to their profiles, they may not have the knowledge and technical skills to understand the settings and change their own settings appropriately.

Second, Inspire has the right to use personal information for various purposes without user control. For example, it may use personal information to present targeted content, including advertising or requests either from ClinicaHealth or from a third party. Users have no control over the collection and use of personal information by Inspire and its affiliates. Inspire makes clear under its privacy policy: “ClinicaHealth may share your email address and profile information with the organizations that sponsor Inspire groups that you join” [13].

Third, although Inspire does not disclose a user’s PII to third parties without consent, it may share health information with third parties on an aggregate or other basis that does not disclose user identity or contain PII [13]. However, concerns have been raised about the sufficiency of popular de-identification methodologies such as merely stripping names and addresses; data mining tools make it possible to reverse-engineer PII from weakly de-identified user information [1]. Furthermore, user-generated content, which may contain PII accidentally revealed by users, is open to the community, outsiders, and third parties.

Fourth, Inspire is an open community. Anyone with a valid email address can sign up for Inspire and then view the content on the site. This raises the problem of unauthorized access by unintended users. Inspire is also vulnerable to attacks from malicious intruders, such as data scraping and social engineering attacks.

‎Table 1. Examples of health-related social networks and general social networks.View this table

These concerns are also intrinsic to other health-related SNS and general social networks such as Facebook and Twitter. The purpose and privacy characteristics of top patient sites and general social networks are summarized in Table 1 [14-19]. Furthermore, the security characteristics of these sites are vague. Without effective privacy controls, health-related SNS may disclose the information not only to their business partners but also to unintended individuals and entities. The concern is not just about data mining and marketing that could influence patients to seek drugs they do not need or to spend more money on branded drugs rather than generics. More broadly, employers, health insurers, and/or identity thieves could gain access to users’ profiles, leading to negative consequences, including privacy compromise, social embarrassment, discriminations from employers and insurance companies, identity theft, and so forth [5,20]. Because health-related SNS are not HIPAA-covered entities, these concerns are very real and must be addressed seriously. When users lose their trust and confidence in the ability of a health-related SNS to protect privacy, that company’s reputation will be irreparably damaged.

A Threat Model

For users, a health-related SNS consists of a set of users, a set of mechanisms for exchanging information, a set of binary relations between users, a set of search functions, and a site operator.

The SNS provider and its affiliates may use health information for many purposes. It may also release health information to various third parties and apps or enable exchange of information with other social networks. We may include these additional actors into a usage and sharing network that involves the SNS provider and its affiliates, a set of third parties that collect data from the site, a set of apps that users may invoke within the site, a set of other SNS or websites, and government agencies, including law enforcement and public health. An information flow diagram for a health-related SNS is shown in Figure 1.

In the social network, a user creates a personal profile, content, and connection network on a health-related SNS. The user may also join other social networks in order to enjoy different social networking services and enter personal health information into other SNS or websites. The site and other websites permanently store the information into their own databases. The site operator uses the information to control the site. The site may make the information visible to other users or even to unintended outsiders including visitors, fake accounts, and attackers. Outsiders may also draw information from other websites.

In the usage and sharing network, the SNS provider and its affiliates may use the accumulated health information for commercial purposes. They may disclose the information to third parties (eg, researchers, marketers, insurers, employers) that may also collect information from other social networks that users have joined and show some information collected from the current site on other websites. The SNS provider may also permit users to launch various apps that draw information from user profiles in order to create targeted materials. Furthermore, the SNS provider and other SNS providers may share their databases and link different user accounts across multiple SNS due to the collection of more personal health data. Finally, the SNS provider may release the information to government entities for law enforcement or social uses.

‎Figure 1. A health-related social networking site.View this figure

Privacy ThreatsOverview

The process of identifying threats to users should recognize users’ interest in protecting personal information from parties with which they do not consent or intend to share it. Users are also concerned that personal data may be used in the wrong way or for the wrong purpose. Thus, we look at four key elements in defining a privacy threat—the actors who disclose information, the actors who receive information, the types of information involved, and the purpose. We outline the principal threats of SNS below.

Excessive Revelation of Personal Health Information

Many users have provided unprecedented amounts of detail about their lives, including PII and sensitive health information. Some people hope that exchange of health information will help them access health advice, receive and give social support, manage their conditions, or improve their overall health and quality of life [21,22]. However, health-related SNS may make the information easily accessible to unwanted audiences. Some people may reveal their personal information for the sake of the greater good. Yet they typically have no way of knowing whether their profiles contribute directly to the development of more effective treatments or simply become a lucrative asset for sale. The shared information may contain personal information such as real name and photos, together with their medical conditions. Once personal health information is compromised and the resultant harm is done to that person, it cannot be withdrawn and made private again [20]. Furthermore, users post not just great amounts of private information about themselves but information about other people such as their family members and friends. Although some medical research programs need health information about patients’ relatives, disclosing medical information about other people is considered a privacy violation. Individuals sharing information on health trends can, if their submissions are aggregated, reveal information about the health issues affecting their local communities or ethnic groups [4].

Access and Use by Other Users and Visitors

Personal health information may become visible to other users, and visitors may also find the information via the website’s search features or even Google searches. This raises the problem of inappropriate access and use by other users and visitors. Even if users can control the access to their own profiles, they may not control what other users and visitors reveal about personal information posted in a public area. For example, other users could be untrustworthy and steal an individual’s health information and use it for their own purposes. They may disclose the information to the person’s employer or insurer or post it on the Internet.

Secondary Uses and Disclosures by the Social Networking Site Provider and its Affiliates

After users share their personal health information with a health-related SNS, they may lose control over the distribution of their information. The SNS provider has unlimited access to all the information. Ultimately the SNS provider expects that the information will generate insights with considerate scientific as well as economic value. Users are extremely vulnerable because they have little control over the collection, use, and disposition of their information. Privacy can be compromised in many possible ways: targeted advertising, secondary use of the information for research, direct misuse, creation of a permanent record of personal profiles, accidental information release by a site operator, etc.

User Profiling Across Multiple Social Networking Sites

Many users join multiple social networks for different purposes. This means a user may hold multiple profiles, which are stored and shared in different SNS [23-25]. For example, a user creates an account on Facebook mainly to communicate with friends and families, as well as to share pictures and videos with them. In the meantime, she provides her professional profile and establishes her professional networking on LinkedIn. Furthermore, she stores her personal health records and shares her treatment and symptom on a health-related SNS.

Third parties and companies may use different user accounts and their social relations to connect multiple social networks and produce aggregated user profiles [24,25]. These aggregated user profiles would be immensely valuable to companies looking to market products or services or, in the case of employers, screen potential job applicants. Furthermore, companies can integrate multiple social networks and conduct social network analysis and mining tasks on the integrated social networks [26]. Individual published social network data capture only a partial picture of a user’s complete social network. Integration of multiple online and real social networks provides a more complete picture of a user’s social network.

Unfortunately, such user profiling and social network integration is not necessarily always beneficial. For example, malicious third parties and identity thieves may use their own crawler systems to obtain a user’s private information and friend lists. More seriously, such third parties and individuals could create fake accounts pretending to be this person and then solicit others to connect [25]. These fake accounts can be abused to deliberately leak the user’s private information and friend lists to malicious intruders, which could quickly turn into identity theft and fraud, losing a job, hurting relationships, or even worse.

Secondary Uses and Disclosures by Third Parties

The SNS provider may disclose personal health information to third parties and apps. Users cannot assess the risks of divulging personal information unless they know the set of organizations to which their information may be disclosed, and the uses to which it may be put [27]. Because health information is of high commercial value, the accessibility and manipulability of the information creates economic pressures for its use and disclosure for a widening range of commercial and industrial uses. The SNS provider may also allow third-party websites and apps to automatically have access to users’ personal information. Data portability technologies may allow many websites and apps to be linked together, letting them share both dynamic content and the nature of the relationships of their users [3,4]. For example, an SNS may communicate with advertising servers, which produce targeted advertising based on details contained in user profiles. The ability to draw data from multiple websites and apps may allow third parties to create a comprehensive digital profile of private data, accumulating more than what a user would have predicted [2,28].

Inability to Detect Sources of Privacy Violations

A health-related SNS cannot assure users’ privacy if it lacks automated tracing mechanisms to monitor and track uses and potential misuses of personal information. Visibility and transparency has not been a strong point of health-related SNS. Information mash-ups and the combination of apps and multiple different types of SNS [24] create unexpected information flow through “back channels”, impeding users’ ability to get a clear view of the way their data are propagating [5]. Different actors (eg, users and apps), linkages, and roles are having dynamic interactions with each other through different ways across multiple social networks or websites. Thus, it is hard for a user to identify the core elements (eg, bridge, hub, broker, power user, proxy) responsible for information dissemination among multiple SNS and find their implicit and explicit relationships with other SNS [24]. Users are often incapable of defending their privacy just because they do not know that their privacy is even endangered. Privacy policies, especially relating to third parties, apps, and social network data sharing and integration, are often vague, uninformative, and seldom reflect users’ expectations [2,28,29].

Outsider Attacks

A health-related SNS is vulnerable to attacks from malicious outsiders, such as data scraping and social engineering attacks. Data scraping is a technique that trolls online communities, discussion boards, blogs, and chat rooms looking for personal information that can be used for fraud or any other purposes. For example, data scrapers may choose to work surreptitiously through hidden programs, or they may sign up with a fake email address in order to obtain personal information from unsuspecting users. A patient site also creates a perfect social and ecological environment for spear phishing, viruses, worms, spyware, spoofing, and Web app attacks, facilitated by human vulnerability and easily accessible user profiles [28]. Furthermore, a health-related SNS is vulnerable to social engineering techniques that exploit low entry thresholds to trustful health communities [3].

A Privacy Preservation ModelOverview

Health-related SNS have unique needs to address the principal threats to users and SNS providers not only because personal health information is highly sensitive but also because privacy is essential for building trust, which is the foundational currency of health communications. Today, the dominant approach is a combination of end-user license agreements and privacy settings. Privacy by license agreements is problematic because users have to accept these agreements prior to using SNS services even if they are concerned about privacy. Empirical and theoretical research suggests that users often lack enough information to make privacy-sensitive decisions and, even with sufficient information, are likely to trade off privacy for health benefits [30]. Moreover, the terms of these agreements seldom reflect users’ expectations because they can be created and changed only by SNS providers, not by users [29,31].

Current privacy settings provided by most health-related SNS suffer a number of drawbacks. First, since most SNS make “public” their default settings, users may forget to change the default settings. Second, individual self-control is constrained by the user’s awareness and education and by the technical design of an SNS, which may impede easy and effective management of settings regarding the access, use, and disclosure of personal information [2]. Furthermore, privacy settings give users control over who sees what on each profile, but they give users little control over what the SNS provider and its affiliates reveal about them. Therefore, asking individuals to assume full responsibility for policing the use of their profiles by other users and visitors is no longer reasonable, nor does it offer sufficient checks against direct misuse and improper disclosure of personal information by the SNS provider and its affiliates.

‎Table 2. Privacy threats and countermeasures.View this table

Instead, a privacy model based on a shared responsibility between the SNS provider and users may be better suited as a means of effective protection for both the SNS and its users. User profiles, user-generated content, and social links are the most valuable asset for the SNS provider, and it should be in the best interests of the SNS provider to find solutions to protect those assets through effective means. Therefore, this paper assumes that both the SNS provider and users share the same values concerning protection of user privacy. Direct misuse and improper disclosure of personal information in the usage and sharing network (Figure 1) can lead to conflicting interests for users and the SNS provider. The conflicting interests can be resolved by other means (eg, regulations [2], decentralized social network services, and cryptographic solutions [8-10]) that fall beyond the scope of this paper. The threat analysis outlined above indicates that privacy protection should be considered on four fronts: user self-control, privacy-preserving mechanisms, privacy audits, and security mechanisms. Building on early research [2-7,26,31-33] and the concept of privacy by design [34], this paper proposes a privacy preservation model that incorporates both individual self-protection and privacy-by-design principles. Below we identify key privacy principles and countermeasures to address the principal threats of health-related SNS (Table 2).

Safe, Flexible, and User-Friendly Privacy Settings

Privacy settings play a vital role in matching users’ privacy expectations. Many health-related SNS give options to hide certain types of personal information from other users and visitors through the customization of privacy settings. The SNS provider expects users to choose their privacy settings meticulously using available privacy options. But users’ self-protection behaviors are constrained by their privacy awareness and by the technical design of privacy settings. Safe, flexible, and user-friendly privacy settings allow the user to set privacy preferences easily and effectively. First, a health-related SNS should turn on privacy settings that limit the collection, display, or sharing of PII by default [3]. For example, the SNS would not make any PII publicly viewable until the user takes affirmative steps to allow this. Second, the SNS can provide flexible privacy settings that afford users fine-grained control over each and every piece of personal information so that other users and visitors cannot access it without explicit consent. Privacy could be compromised by the user’s inability to control impressions and manage complex social contexts [7]. It needs to be a major responsibility of the SNS provider to raise the awareness of users and to make its privacy settings very user-friendly. If the SNS enables exchange of information with other SNS or websites, a global model is needed to deal with issues of integration of privacy and security settings across multiple SNS. Third, health-related SNS may provide a means by which users can visualize their current exposure within the community and across multiple social networks. In practice, users have little sense of how their information is accessed and used by other users, visitors, apps, third parties, and other SNS. Graphical displays of the social relations and user accounts linkage across multiple social networks [24,26] would help the user appreciate the potential risks arising from a disclosure and customize their individual settings accordingly.

Privacy by Design

Privacy by design refers to the philosophy and approach of building privacy into the design and architecture of technologies, business practices, and the underlying technical platforms [34]. The presence of protection for users’ privacy, including data anonymization and purpose limitation, is crucial to gaining the necessary public trust to make the SNS successful. The following privacy-preserving mechanisms have to be taken into account. First of all, the SNS provider may design architectures that apply appropriate privacy-preserving transformations before transferring the information to individuals and entities. There are several transformation techniques. The safe harbor de-identification method attempts to suppress individual identifiers in order to de-identify the data. Health-related SNS might voluntarily comply with the HIPAA privacy rule by deleting 18 common identifiers before disclosure [35,36]. Under the HIPAA privacy rule, data are considered de-identified if the covered entity removed the following identifiers from the data: names, addresses, dates, telephone numbers, fax numbers, email addresses, social security numbers, medical record numbers, health plan beneficiary numbers, account numbers, certificate/license numbers, vehicle identifiers and serial numbers (including license plate numbers), device identifiers and serial numbers, Web Universal Resource Locators (URL), Internet Protocol (IP) addresses, biometric identifiers (including finger and voice prints), full-face photographic images and any comparable images, and any other unique identifying number, characteristic, or code.

An alternative approach, known as statistical anonymization techniques [37-39], desensitizes the data by suppressing quasi-identifiers (eg, postal code, birth date, gender, hometown, and/or other demographics), decreasing precision/accuracy, and/or adding confusion to the information in order to make it more difficult to link de-identified data back to the individual. Properly applied statistical anonymization is an effective tool for protecting privacy and preserving the ability to leverage user-generated content for secondary purposes. Furthermore, health-related SNS may use network data anonymization techniques to reduce the identity inference risks from social network data such as social graph, tagging data, email, or instant messaging. The techniques attempt to suppress the user’s network structure by graph modification approaches and clustering-based approaches [33]. However, the techniques only allow us to investigate the structural properties of a single anonymized social network. In many cases, node identifiers are essential to link data from different social networks. In order to share useful information among different social networks while protecting privacy, Tang and Yang [26] proposed a generalization and probabilistic approach by generalizing social networks to preserve privacy and integrating the probabilistic models for the generalized social network data for social network analysis and mining.

Over the past few years, however, researchers have found that even de-identified data could be re-identified and attributed to specific individuals [40,41]. Third parties and companies are actively seeking end-user information by linking a variety of different data sources and different user accounts across multiple social networks. The more datasets to which third parties and companies have access, the easier such re-identification becomes. Therefore, the SNS provider and third parties should make a public commitment not to re-identify the data for commercial uses without explicit consent and it should contractually prohibit downstream recipients from doing the same. The SNS may also provide privacy-preserving interfaces for third-party apps while still enabling them to deliver customizable content. Current best practices include “privacy by proxy” mechanisms [32].

Second, the SNS provider may limit the collection, use, and disclosure of personal information to the purposes identified in the privacy notice. Personal information shall not be used or disclosed for purposes other than those identified in the privacy notice, except with consent or where required by law. It is a challenge to find a balance between privacy and utility in data sharing and integration across multiple social networks and websites. On one hand, users’ personal information is the most valuable asset for SNS providers and it should also be in their best interest to protect the asset. SNS providers, on the other hand, need to proof their business model by further expanding ways to exploit the value of their users’ personal information. Stringent penalties for misuse and improper disclosure of personal information should be established through federal regulations or contractual mechanisms.

Third, a health-related SNS may provide convenient tools to allow users to destroy their profiles and posts completely, in a timely fashion. These tools should allow users to remove their personal information safely and delete or edit their posts in a user-friendly way.

Privacy Audits

Privacy audits provide a means of independently verifying that a health-related SNS operates according to its privacy policies. Auditing and monitoring services are not included in the privacy policies of current health-related SNS. A health-related SNS cannot assure users of their privacy and security unless it enables users to request an “audit trail”, detailing when their personal information was accessed, by whom, and for what purpose. A second alternative is to actually audit access and actively notify users in the case of inappropriate access. This principle seeks to assure users that a health-related SNS is operating according to its privacy policies, subject to independent verification. Its component parts and operations are visible and transparent to users. Options for the user to report privacy invasions establish transparency and additional trust in its commitment to adequate treatment of personal information. Furthermore, malicious intruders may use their own crawler systems to obtain a user’s private information and friend lists and infer the user account’s linkage across multiple SNS and websites. It is highly desirable to design a methodology for auditing usage and data sharing and detecting unauthorized access to each user’s personal information across multiple social networks.

Security for Privacy

Health-related SNS may provide appropriate security safeguards that improve privacy. Intruders are increasingly using complicated techniques via the Internet to steal personal information. Traditional security solutions like firewalls and encryption are no longer the centerpiece against social network attacks. Encryption technology for the transmission and storage of personal information provides enhanced security. But data thieves may steal personal information via fake accounts or launch automated crawling and identity theft attacks across different SNS and obtain a large amount of user private information. Some health-related SNS do not use a validation process during new user’s registration. Weak authentication of registrants through a functional email address, the preferred validation requirement, is not an adequate method and leads to a proliferation of fake accounts populating the network. Therefore, health-related SNS may develop strong multifactor authentication that combines two or more independent categories of credentials: what the user knows (password), what the user has (security token), and what the user is (a biometric characteristic such as a fingerprint). Health-related SNS may also invest in things like continuous monitoring and security analytics solutions that monitor the network 24/7 [42], reporting suspicious activities or vulnerability. Social engineering and phishing attacks are the most important threats to users. Sadly, there is no computer program that can protect the network from social engineering or phishing attacks. The best protection is security education and awareness. Health-related SNS could develop proactive communication techniques that raise the level of education and awareness about dangers of privacy and security breaches. Procedures and policies could also be in place for reporting misuse and illegal activity.

The above-mentioned principles and techniques form the basis of how to address the threats of health-related SNS and other eHealth technologies. In principle, many of the techniques and industry best practices needed to implement and enforce these principles are available, if not deployed on existing health-related SNS. We do not have space to detail all the protections for user privacy in this paper, but only to provide a concise set of countermeasures and to relate the countermeasures to the identified privacy threats (Table 2). Since de-identification and informed consent are key elements of privacy laws, these principles and countermeasures can give a health-related SNS legal cover in case of a privacy breach.


A health-related SNS benefits from the increasing amount of personal health information willingly shared on its site, but users are likely to be exposed to privacy and security threats. In this paper, we have developed a threat model that highlights the underlying usage and sharing network behind the SNS and shows the principal threats to users. Because the established solutions like license agreements and unsafe privacy settings are inadequate to mitigate the threats, we proposed a conceptual privacy framework that integrates such foundational principles as safe and flexible setting, privacy by design, privacy audits, and security for privacy. The principles and their associated countermeasures provide a practical way to protect privacy against unauthorized individuals or entities. This proposed model can be generalized to other online settings where personal information is available.

Because personal health information is extremely valuable to both the SNS provider and its business partners, there are always economic pressures on the SNS provider to exploit the value of the database it holds—a prospect that becomes even more tempting if the current business model that supports full user control does not generate sufficient revenue. Hence, there is a tension here, because without effective protections, many users would refrain from sharing health information online due to privacy concerns [43], causing the community to fade away. But if the SNS allows users to keep too much of their information private, there will be less content for creating commercial and social value inside or outside the SNS. Consequently, its business will suffer. The main challenge in the future will be to develop privacy-preserving SNS that protect user privacy while still tapping the richness of user-generated content. All involved parties, and at the foremost the SNS developers, need to understand the potential threats that exist and therefore build privacy and security protections into health-related social networks.


Defeat Chronic Pain

Defeat Chronic Pain: If you are one of the estimated 50 to 100 million Americans who struggles with Chronic Pain, you are aware of just how miserable and life-altering it can be. There is not a single area of you life that remains unaffected. You no longer sleep well. Your SEX LIFE is non-existent. Everyday activities have become your own personal “Mount Everest ”. You cannot concentrate because the pain IS ALWAYS ON YOUR MIND. It is wearing you out, physically, mentally, and emotionally. It’s sapping your ability to think clearly or make decisions. In short we’re here to defeat chronic pain.


People can see the pain on your face and in your eyes. Chronic Pain and the inability to do the things you love, is making you feel DEPRESSED (not the other way around like your doctor may have suggested). Recent studies have even shown that brains of people suffering with Chronic Pain, show patterns of atrophy that are virtually indistinguishable from what is seen in patients with dementia or ALZHEIMER’S. In fact, a recent study from a prominent Canadian University showed that Chronic Pain causes the brain to degenerate at almost 10 times the rate of someone without pain!


Although Chronic Pain may seem hopeless, there are some things that you can do to help yourself — even though your doctor undoubtedly failed to educate you in this regard. Some of the most basic of these include eating only healthy foods (I recommend a PALEO DIET), taking only WHOLE FOOD SUPPLEMENTS, drinking more WATER, giving up the CIGARETTES, and EXERCISING to the degree that you can (difficult when suffering with Chronic Pain or FIBROMYALGIA).


Although DOING THESE SIMPLE THINGS will certainly help a large percentage who suffer and be able to defeat chronic pain; there is a significant percentage of you whose pain is not greatly diminished by these measures. It is for you that I created this website. But before we move on to treatment of Chronic Pain, you must first understand what Chronic Pain is and how it really works.

Defeat Chronic Pain: It Works Like This

For years, neuro-scientists have known that Chronic Pain can cause brain atrophy (shrinkage) that is indistinguishable from Alzheimer’s or Dementia. More recently, the prestigious Journal of Neuroscience reported research from McGill University showing that, “The longer the individual has had Fibromyalgia, the greater the gray matter loss, with each year of Fibromyalgia being equivalent to 9.5 times the loss in normal aging”. Think about this statement for a moment. Every single year you live with some sort of CHRONIC PAIN SYNDROME (or syndromes as the case may be) is the equivalent of nearly 10 times the brain loss seen in the normal aging process. Re-read this paragraph until the urgency of your situation sinks in!


Although there are several types of pain (the study of Chronic Pain can get extremely complex), we are going to try and keep this as simple as possible. For our purposes, there are two types of Chronic Pain. It has to do with where the pain comes from. Chronic Pain originates in one of the two following areas.


  • The Central Nervous System
  • The Body


As we will discuss shortly, Chronic Pain that arises in the CNS is frequently ‘learned’ pain. Let me explain. In order to learn how to SHOOT FREE THROWS, use chop sticks, PLAY THE PIANO, speak Swahili, you have to practice. Everyone remembers the old adage; Practice makes Perfect. If you stimulate pain pathways in the Brain & Nervous System long enough, or are exposed to enough stressors in your life (CHEMICAL, AUTOIMMUNE, EMOTIONAL, DIETARY, FOOD SENSITIVITIES, PHYSICAL, BACTERIAL, VIRAL, PARASITIC, FUNGAL, MOLD, ELECTROMAGNETIC, etc), you can alter the way your Brain and Central Nervous System function.


Hopefully your pain, even though severe, is still Type II (THE THREE TYPES OF PAIN). As people start losing control of numerous areas of physiology (DIGESTION, HORMONAL, IMMUNITY, BLOOD SUGAR REGULATION, HYPERSENSITIVITY, DYSBIOSIS, etc), the problems ramp up. Over time this pain can (will) become locked into the brain. Although pathological Pain Syndromes arising from a malfunctioning CNS are not the most common causes of Chronic Pain, if this is where you are at, you are going to have to find a way to deal with these underlying issues (FUNCTIONAL NEUROLOGY can be a fantastic starting point). Although I provide information that helps many people help themselves with the severe metabolic and neurological problems, this website is chiefly devoted to defeat chronic Pain that is not locked into the Brain, but is instead originating from the body (Type II Pain).

Defeat Chronic Pain: Nociception

“Simple Nociception” is the most basic type of pain. If someone steps on your toe, it hurts. This is normal, and means that your nervous system is functioning properly. Get the person off your toe, and the pain goes away — almost immediately. Simple. There are several different types of Nociceptive Pain, but the one that we are most concerned about on this website is the one that has to do with ‘deep’ musculoskeletal pain, otherwise known as Deep Somatic Pain (Greek “Soma” = body). Deep Somatic Pain is pain that originates in tissues that are considered to be ‘deep’ in the body. Although we do not always think of many of these tissue types as being deep, this category includes things like LIGAMENTS, TENDONS, MUSCLES, FASCIA, blood vessels, and bones. There are two main types of Nociceptors, chemical and mechanical.

I. Chemical Nociception

The Chemical Nociceptors are stimulated by noxious chemicals. The chief of these are the chemicals we collectively refer to as INFLAMMATION (bear in mind that once Inflammation is involved, we begin moving away from Type I pain and into Type II pain — Nociception is still involved, but so is the Inflammatory Cascade). Inflammation is actually made up of a large group of chemicals manufactured within your body as part of the normal Immune System response. They have names like prostaglandins, leukotrienes, histamines, cytokines, kinins, etc, etc, etc. When these chemicals are out of increased beyond what’s needed for normal tissue repair, the result will be a whole host of health problems —- and Chronic Pain.


Although “SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION” is at the root of the vast majority of America’s health problems (DIABETES, CANCER, FIBROMYALGIA, THYROID PROBLEMS, ARTHRITIS, HEART DISEASE, and numerous others), you will soon see that even though Inflammation is always involved with the tissues of the “Deep Soma,” it sometimes gets more credit than it deserves. However, you also have to be aware that exposing MICROSCOPIC SCAR TISSUE to chronic inflammation can potentially hyper-sensitize nerves. This hypersensitization makes the nerves within Scar Tissue as much as 1,000 times more pain sensitive than normal (the work of the famous neurologist, DR. CHAN GUNN).


INCREASED TISSUE ACIDITY (usually caused by hypoxia — diminished tissue oxygen levels) is another common form of Chemical Nociception. This frequently occurs as the result of a JUNKY DIET, but is also caused by relentless Mechanical / Neurological / Immune System Dysfunction. It is a big reason that my Decompression Protocols utilize OXYGEN THERAPY extensively.

II. Mechanical Nociception

As you can imagine, Mechanical Dysfunction stimulates the Mechanical Nociceptors. This group of nociceptors (pain receptors) is stimulated by constant mechanical stress in the tissues of the Deep Soma — particularly ligaments, tendons, and fascia. Mechanical tension, mechanical deformation, mechanical pressure, etc are the things that cause Mechanical Nociception, which can in turn, cause pain — chronic, unrelenting, pain. Remove the offending mechanical stressor, and you can oftentimes remove the pain. Sounds simple, doesn’t it? Unfortunately, nothing is ever quite as simple as it initially appears.


Be aware that Nociceptive Pain can actually become Brain-Based over time. This is called ‘Supersensitivity’ and is caused by alterations in the Brain and Central Nervous System that perpetuate the pain cycle (many in the medical community are calling it CENTRALIZATION OR CENTRAL SENSITIZATION. In Mechanical Nociception, even though the injured tissue has, according to all of the medical tests, HEALED, it has healed improperly; i.e. microscopic scar tissue and tissue adhesion — particularly in the FASCIA. I probably do not need to tell you that this can be really really bad news — particularly because it is a significant feature of what I call “CHRONIC PAIN’S PERFECT STORM.


As nerve function and PROPRIOCEPTION become increasingly fouled up, degenerative arthritis and joint deterioration begin to set in (HERE). Because of involvement in the Brain or Central Nervous System, this kind of pain is often referred to as Neuropathic Pain or Neruogenic Pain. Sometimes people end up with HYPERALGIA (Extreme sensitivity to pain. Stimulus that should cause a little pain, causes extraordinary amounts of pain). Or they end up with ALLODYNIA (Stimulus which do not normally elicit any pain at all, now causes pain). Sometimes these two overlap. Stay with me and you will begin to understand why.

Defeat Chronic Pain: Hypersensitized Nerves Relationship To Injured Or Damaged Fascia

Think of nerve endings as the twigs at the very end of a tree limb. Nerves (just like a tree) begin with a large trunk, which splits / divides into smaller and smaller branches until eventually you arrive at the end — the tiny twig (or nerve ending) at the end of the very smallest branches.


If you have ever seen a “topped” tree, you can understand what happens to nerve endings that are found in microscopic scar tissue. Professional Tree Trimmers cut (or “top“) the largest branches just above where the trunk splits into two or three limbs. What happens to these stubs? Instead of having limbs that continue to branch out and divide into ever-smaller limbs in a normal fashion, you get a stub or stump, that in a short matter of time, swells up and has hundreds of tiny twig-like limbs growing from it. “Topping” stimulates the growth of twigs from the stump. The injured nerves found in microscopic scar tissue act in much the same way.


As the larger nerves that are found in soft tissues are injured, you end up with an inordinate number of immature nerve endings (twigs) growing out of an inflamed nerve “stump”. As you might imagine, extra pain receptors are never a good thing! And because there in Inflammation present, this often leads to Microscopic Scar Tissue, which, even though it is up to 1,000 times more pain-sensitive than normal tissue, cannot be seen with even the most technologically advance imaging techniques such as CT / MRI (HERE). This is a commonly seen phenomenon in Facial Adhesions, and is why even though the people living this nightmare believe that because their pain is so severe that it should make their MRI “Glow Red”, it shows nothing. This tends to lead to deer-in-the-headlight looks when you ask your doctor what might be causing your pain, not to mention accusations of malingering, drug seeking, or attempting to get on Disability.

Defeat Chronic Pain: Nerves Are Like Tree Branches

Uninjured Nerves


Photo by Stephen McCulloch

Injured Nerves

 Photo by Linda Bailey


Defeat Chronic Pain: Fascial Adhesions

Microscopic Scar Tissue & Chronic Pain

One of the biggest revelations for many people suffering with Chronic Pain is the absurd numbers of CHRONIC PAIN SYNDROMES brought on by microscopic scarring of the FASCIA. It gets even worse once you realize that this Fascia is the most pain-sensitive tissue in the body —- yet it does not show up on even the most technologically advanced imaging techniques, including MRI. Simply read our “Fascia” page to see why microscopic scarring of this specific “Connective Tissue” is at the root of all sorts of Chronic Pain Cases — not to mention ILL HEALTH.


Destroy Chronic Pain / Doctor Russell Schierling

Medical Inc Teaser


Looking Out, Looking In, 14th Edition – Free eBook Share

eBook Free Download: Looking Out, Looking In, 14th Edition | PDF, EPUB | ISBN: 0840028172 | 2013-01-01 | English | PutLocker


How does the brain work? – Daily News & Analysis

Daily News & Analysis
How does the brain work?